JAEA and QST experimental apparatuses

JAEA and QST contract beamlines

BL11XU : QST Quantum DynamicsⅠBeamline

Persons in charge Primary Dr. Takuo Sasaki, QST Principal Researcher
Secondary Dr. Kenji Ishii, QST Senior Principal Researcher
Nearest entrance and exit B1 in SPring-8 storage ring building
SR source in-vacuum undulator
SR energy 6 - 70 keV
Monochromator double-crystal monochromator with liquid nitrogen cooling
Characteristics A multi-crystal exchange system makes it possible to exchange two kinds of dispersive crystals, Si(111) and Si(311), in vacuum.
Research fields nuclear resonance scattering experiments, inelastic X-ray scattering experiments, in situ observation of crystal growth
Apparatuses Synchrotron radiation Mössbauer spectroscopy station (QST)
Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy station (QST)
Surface X-ray diffractometer (QST)

BL14B1 : QST Quantum DynamicsⅡBeamline

Persons in charge Primary Dr. Hiroyuki Saito, QST Senior Principal Researcher
Secondary Dr. Yasuhiro Yoneda, JAEA Environment and Materials Dynamics Research Group GL
Nearest entrance and exit B2 in SPring-8 storage ring building
SR source bending magnet
SR energy 5 – 90 keV (monochromatic), 5 – 150 keV (white)
Monochromator double-crystal monochromator with water cooling and crystal bender
Characteristics Synchrotron radiation with continuous spectrum (white X-rays) is available by removing dispersive crystals from the X-ray axis. The monochromatic X-ray is used in ordinal XAFS experiments and angle-dispersive diffraction experiments. The white X-ray is convenient to energy-dispersive XAFS (DXAFS) measurements in in-situ observation of local structure variation and energy-dispersive diffraction measurements in high pressure experiments. Bending a mirror or a dispersive-crystal provides a focused high intensity monochromatic X-ray without higher harmonics. Insertion of a mirror contributes reduction of higher harmonics from white X-rays so that it is effective in DXAFS experiments.
Research fields high pressure science, physical properties influenced crystal structure, surface science, in-situ observation of catalytic reactions, structure analysis by XAFS
Apparatuses High-pressure and high-temperature apparatus (QST)
Energy-dispersive XAFS measuring station (JAEA)
κ-type X-ray diffractometer (JAEA) → Operation at BL22XU from 2019B

BL22XU : JAEA Actinide ScienceⅠBeamline

Persons in charge Primary Dr. Hideaki Shiwaku, JAEA Assistant Principal Engineer
Secondary Dr. Kenji Ohwada, QST Senior Principal Researcher
Nearest entrance and exit B4 in SPring-8 storage ring building and entrance of RI Laboratory building
SR source in-vacuum undulator
SR energy 5 - 70 keV
Monochromator Cryogenically Cooled Calculation and Combination Type Double Crystal Monochromator with Si(111)
Cryogenically Cooled Single Cam Type Double Crystal Monochromator with Si(111) and (311) Crystals Switching System

In the first half of 2019, the calculation and combination type double crystal monochromator can only be used from late May to June. For other periods we will use a single cam type dual crystal monochromator. The Si(111) and Si(311) crystals of the single cam type dual crystal spectrometer can be switched at any time.
Characteristics High-intensity synchrotron radiation in the wide energy ranges from approximately 5 keV to 70 keV can be used. By using the (311) plane, high energy resolution measurement is possible. It has the X-ray mirror system and the beryllium lens focusing optics. Since there is the experiment hatch 3 located 120m away from the light source point, speckle measurement and imaging measurement are possible. Furthermore, according to the appropriate procedure, it is available to study radioisotope and actinides at BL22XU.
Research fields high pressure science, resonant X-ray scattering, coherent X-ray scattering, stress distribution analysis, structure analysis by XAFS
Apparatuses Diamond anvil-cell diffractometer (QST)
Large X-ray diffractometer (QST) → Not available in the 2019B nanotechnology project.
The apparatus for imaging and measuring material stress (JAEA)
XAFS measuring station (JAEA)

BL23SU : JAEA Actinide ScienceⅡBeamline

Persons in charge Primary Dr. Shin-ichi Fujimori, JAEA Principal Scientist
Secondary Dr. Akitaka Yoshigoe, JAEA Principal Scientist
Nearest entrance and exit C1 in SPring-8 storage ring building and entrance of RI Laboratory building
SR source in-vacuum twin-helical undulator
SR energy 0.37 – 2 keV
Monochromator varied line spacing plane grating
Characteristics This beamline provides soft X-rays with the world’s highest level energy resolution. It is usable for precise electronic and magnetic structures analyses. The downstream portion of this beamline is introduced in the RI Laboratory building so that U compounds, interesting as strongly correlated materials, are available. The energy resolution is E/ΔE > 10000 at the sample point.
Research fields surface chemical reactions, electronic structure analysis
Apparatuses Surface chemistry experimental apparatus (JAEA)
Soft X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (JAEA) → Not available in the 2019B nanotechnology project. Available in the shared-use program only.
Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism apparatus (JAEA) → Consultations with scientists of JAEA are necessary.

JAEA and QST apparatuses

XAFS measuring station (BL22XU)

XAFS measuring station (BL22XU / JAEA)

XAFS measurements can be performed using high brilliance and high energy X-rays emitted from an undulator. Time-resolved high speed measurements (Quick-XAFS) are possible. Ion chamber, NaI scintillation, and Ge semiconductor detectors are available, and a cryostat can be used for low temperature experiments.

Typical application : Analyses of structures and electronic states for functional molecular design.

Energy-dispersive XAFS measuring station (BL14B1)

Energy-dispersive XAFS measuring station (BL14B1 / JAEA)

In addition to ordinary XAFS measurements using a double crystal monochromator, energy-dispersive XAFS can be performed using a bent spectroscopic crystal. A 36-element semiconductor detector is available for fluorescence detection during ordinary XAFS measurements. Sample temperature is controllable in the range of 20 K to 1073 K. The control of atmosphere including CO and NO is possible by a gas controlling system. A quadrupole mass analyzer is available for gas composition analyses.

Typical application : In-situ and real-time observations of catalytic reactions.

κ-type X-ray diffractometer (BL14B1)

κ-type X-ray diffractometer (BL14B1 / JAEA) → Operation at BL22XU from 2019B

This kappa-type multi-axis diffractometer is designed for surface structure analyses. In addition to the standard 6 rotation axes, the entire system can be rotated about an axis in the horizontal plane. Simultaneous measurements of electrochemical characterization are possible by using for example a potentiostat. Samples can be cooled to temperatures as low as 10 K using a He circular refrigerator, and heated to up to 1000 K using an electric furnace.

Typical application : ln-situ observation of the surface structural change of a secondary battery electrode during charging/discharging.

Stress-Imaging measuring apparatus (BL22XU)

The apparatus for imaging and measuring material stress (BL22XU / JAEA)

The apparatus for imaging and measuring material stress can image the internal strain / stress distribution in metal materials. This apparatus can perform in-situ measurements by using a high temperature (up to 900℃) and load (up to 5 kN) apparatus. Using multiple two-dimensional detectors at the same time, this apparatus can perform time-resolved measurements at 200 Hz for strain and stress measurements and at 2000 Hz for imaging.

Typical applications : Evaluation of stress, strain, dislocation density in metal materials under deformation, melt solidification phenomenon observation during laser processing.

Surface chemistry experimental apparatus (BL23SU)

Surface chemistry experimental apparatus (BL23SU / JAEA)

In-situ real-time observation can be performed for adsorption and desorption, oxidation and reduction at metal and semiconductor surfaces. Surface cleaning is possible in the surface preparation chamber by using Ar+ ion sputtering, and temperature elevation up to 1450 K. A LEED system is available to observe reconstructed surfaces and AES is available for studying the chemical composition at the sample surface. Molecular beams at variable kinetic energy can be irradiated at the sample surface by using a supersonic molecular beam generator and a gas doser. In addition to synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy, thermal desorption analyses, STM/AFM, LEED/AES can be applied to observe surface chemical reaction dynamics.

Typical application : formation processes of graphene, insulator layers on SiC surfaces.

Soft X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (BL23SU)

Soft X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (BL23SU / JAEA) → Not available in the 2019B nanotechnology project. Available in the shared-use program only.

A photoelectron spectroscopy station designed for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This station makes it possible to study in detail the electronic states of various rare earth and 3d transition metal compounds. The energy-resolution (E/△E > 104) ranks with the best in the world. Bulk sensitive studies on electronic states are possible due to the use of soft X-ray synchrotron radiation. ln addition, the station is located in the RI laboratory of SPring-8 so that unsealed uranium compounds can be measured. The sample temperature can be controlled between 10 K and room temperature.

Typical application : Electronic structure studies of high-efficiency thermoelectric conversion materials.

Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism apparatus (BL23SU)

Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism apparatus (BL23SU / JAEA) → Consultations with scientists of JAEA are necessary.

Information on the magnetic moments of magnetic materials can be obtained element-selectively by using the total electron yield method in soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. High quality data can be obtained due to the high-speed switching (1 Hz) of the helicity of the circularly-polarized synchrotron radiation. A superconducting magnet is used to produce a magnetic field up to 10 T, and samples can be cooled to a lower limit of 5 K using a He circular refrigerator.

Typical application : Quantitative evaluation of spin and orbital magnetic moments in highly spin-polarized materials.

Synchrotron radiation Mössbauer spectroscopy station (BL11XU)

Synchrotron radiation Mössbauer spectroscopy station (BL11XU / QST)

Synchrotron radiation Mössbauer spectroscopy for nuclides such as 57Fe and 61Ni can be performed at this station, providing information on electronic, magnetic, and lattice vibration states. Local analyses such as studying the composition of the surface layers of metal films with atomic-layer resolution are enabled by using a grazing-incidence SR beam and isotopic substituted samples.

Typical application : Exploration of magnetism in metal films at individual atomic layer resolution.

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy station (BL11XU)

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy station (BL11XU / QST)

High energy-resolution is achieved by back reflection from a spherical focusing analyzer mounted on a 2-m-long arm. Elemental excitation accompanied by momentum transfer in the bulk is observable. A magnetic field of up to 8 T is available using a superconducting magnet, and samples can be cooled to temperatures as low as 10 K using a He circulation refrigerator.

Typical application : Electronic states analysis of Pt catalysts for fuel cells.

Surface X-ray diffractometer (BL11XU)

Surface X-ray diffractometer (BL11XU / QST)

A surface X-ray diffractometer connected to a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) chamber. In-situ and real-time observation can be performed by X-ray diffraction for studying the growth processes of semiconductor quantum dots and semiconductor multilayer films. The growth of As compounds such as GaAs and InAs, semiconductor nitrides such as GaN and InN using RF-MBE is possible by exchanging two-types of MBE chambers.

Typical application : Real-time analysis of growth processes for semiconductor quantum dots and semiconductor multilayer films.

High-pressure and high-temperature apparatus (BL14B1)

High-pressure and high-temperature apparatus (BL14B1 / QST)

Samples at pressures of up to 13 GPa and temperatures of up to 2500 K can be investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and radiography using white X-rays, XAFS and angle-resolved X-ray diffraction using monochromatized X-rays.

Typical application : In-situ observation of formation processes of metal hydrides under high pressure.

Diamond anvil-cell diffractometer (BL22XU)

Diamond anvil-cell diffractometer (BL22XU / QST)

(1)Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction under high pressure
X-ray diffraction measurements can be performed at high pressure. Temperatures as low as 5 K can be reached using a He circular refrigerator. The pressure at the sample can be measured with the ruby fluorescence method using a microscope attached to the diffractometer. A large imaging plate (400 × 400 mm2) is used as a detector. The distance between the sample and the detector is controllable in the range of 250 mm to 730 mm, allowing large angle data to be obtained as well as high resolution data.

Typical applications : Intermetallic compounds such as metal hydrides, negative thermal expansion materials, superconductors, f-electrons compounds, quasicrystals

(2)Atomic two-body distribution function (PDF) measurements under hydrogen atmosphere and ordinary pressure
X-ray total scattering measurements up to Q = 27Å-1 are possible by using high energy synchrotron radiation (70 keV) so that a PDF analysis is also possible with distance correlation up to about 100 Å. A large imaging plate is used as a detector. An attachment is available for in-situ observation of hydrogenation processes at room temperature and hydrogen gas pressures of less than 1 MPa.

Typical applications : Hydrogen storage alloys, negative thermal expansion materials.

Large X-ray diffractometer (BL22XU)

Large X-ray diffractometer (BL22XU / QST)

A multi-purpose 4 axis diffractometer. This is used for the studies on domain structures by the coherent X-ray diffraction method, diffraction mappings of stress, and distortion distribution. A large apparatus for controlling the sample environment is also attachable. The temperature can be controlled from 4.2 K to 800 K by using a closed-cycle He-gas refrigerator, and from 77 K to 500 K by using a cryostage.

Typical applications : Nano-domain observation by the coherent X-ray scattering and measurements of the 3D distributions of stress/distortion.